Marti Lanuza, I.; Courpasson, D., 2019. Collective ethics of resistance: The organization of survival in the Warsaw Ghetto. Organization, First Published January 17, 2019: .
This article aims to shed light on how ‘powerless’ people can organize to survive in situations of mass oppression. Research on powerlessness often explains compliance and political inaction by a culture of silence, generated from the sedimentation of numerous experiences of defeat. We question this assertion by drawing from an illustration of certain inhabitants of the Warsaw Ghetto, who managed to create a micro-society and reclaim the social relations the Nazis sought to destroy. Building on the work of Schaffer, we explain these collective ethics of resistance as the view that people should actively participate in the creation and maintenance of their own social relations. Through this lens, we argue that ethics and resistance are intertwined.
Willi, A.; Massoud, Jacob A.; Daily, Bonnie F. , 2019. How Do Argentine SMEs Define CSR? Cases in Educational Social Development. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, First online: March 2019: .
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the social responsibility approaches of six small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Argentina and their definitions of corporate social responsibility (CSR).
This is an exploratory, qualitative study and part of a broader study. A sample of six Argentine SMEs from manufacturing, services and construction sectors was used to evaluate specific CSR initiatives in the areas of social development. A total of 23 interviews were conducted, and open coding was used to analyze and develop categories and themes from the data patterns.
Results provide a set of definitional dimensions for CSR from an Argentine perspective, and indicate that SMEs in Argentina frequently engage in education and training oriented initiatives as a primary emphasis for their CSR efforts. Commitment, community and employee orientations, the natural environment, and education/training represent key elements of their conceptualizations of CSR.
This research extends the literature related to CSR definitions. It also highlights elements of a growing trend around educational social development initiatives in developing countries. Additionally, it is one of only a few studies to focus on Argentina.
Jamali, D.; Makarem, Y.; Willi, A., 2018. From diffusion to translation: implementation of CSR practices in MNC subsidiaries. Social Responsibility Journal, Forthcoming: .
Anchored in institutional theory and sense-making theory, the purpose of this paper is to explore the implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) at the multinational corporations (MNC) subsidiary level in a developing country context.
This paper follows a qualitative methodology and adopts the interview technique to investigate the CSR practices of eight MNCs.
The results suggest that the CSR diffusion process goes well beyond simple imitation (i.e. adopting CSR myths or best practices intact), involving complex processes of interpretation and translation at the subsidiary level to reconcile the multiple and contradictory expectations for CSR.
The paper illustrates the dynamics of the sense-making process at the level of the subsidiary and the numerous institutional factors that are accounted for while implementing CSR activities in the host community. This paper argues that the integration of the two theories helps bridge macro and micro levels of analysis, thus providing a much richer account of how organizational actors at the subsidiary level make “sense” of a multitude of institutional pressures in the process of CSR implementation stemming from within the MNC itself on one hand (and the respective home country) and from the host community on the other hand.
Marti Lanuza, I., 2018. Transformational Business Models, Grand Challenges, and Social Impact. Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 152, Issue 4: pp. 965-976 .
The starting premise of this paper is that business models can transform social reality—sometimes to an extreme. Then, building on the concept of “grand challenges,” we argue that such transformations can be either positive or negative in nature (or both)—even in the case of business models designed to improve value not only economically but environmentally and socially as well. To further our understanding of the negative aspects, we introduced two conceptual categories of business model: those for oppression or depletion and exclusionary ones. We further argue that bringing the notion of grand challenges center-stage highlights four elements that can contribute to emerging research and inform practice on transformational business models. These elements are: participatory forms of architecture; multivocal inscriptions; scaffolding; and proximity (understood as a caring concern for the “other”). They are central components of what we name transformational business models.
De Holan, P. M.; Willi, A.; Fernandez, P. , 2017. Breaking the Wall: Emotions and Projective Agency Under Extreme Poverty. Business & Society, First online: December 5, 2017: .
In this inductive, exploratory study, we explore how emotions affect the agency of vulnerable persons and their engagement in social innovation to challenge oppressive institutional constraints. By presenting the in-depth case of a successful entrepreneur from a shantytown, we show how emotions affect the construction of a self that contributes to the reproduction of social order rather than change, and how effective interventions can break the cycle of poverty and hopelessness that is dominant among excluded people. We find that this process is fragile and contingent on the presence of known strangers—that is, a web of actors that contributes not only resources but also emotional engagement that helps the emergence and development of low-power actors’ projectivity. We identify mechanisms for and provide a model of the development and emergence of the projective self that is necessary to engage in future-oriented agency.
Etiennot, H.; Diaz Hermelo, F.; McGahan, A., 2017. How do industry and country impact firm performance? A national and supranational analysis. Review of Managerial Science, First Online: 27 November 2017: pp. 1-31.
We contribute to the literature of the country, industry and firm effects on performance by developing an autoregressive cross-classified mixed-effect linear model that examines heterogeneity in the profitability of corporations in emerging and developed economies, as well as corporations located in different supranational regions. To this purpose, we simultaneously decompose abnormal returns into permanent and transitory components at the firm, industry, country and industry–country levels. We find that firms in emerging countries have significantly higher rates of performance persistence and different sources of persistence compared to firms located in developed countries. These differences are also evident between different supranational regions and countries at different levels of institutional development.
Fernandez, P.D., Farchi, T., Marti Lanuza,I., 2017. Mundane and everyday politics for and from the neighborhood. Organization Studies, Vol. 38, Issue: 2: 201-223.
Social movement scholars and activists have recognized the difficulties of mobilizing people for the long haul, moving from the exuberance of the protest to the dull and ordinary work necessary to produce sustainable change. Drawing on ethnographic work in La Juanita, in Greater Buenos Aires, we look at local actions for and from the neighborhood in order to resist political domination, taken by people who have been unemployed for long periods of time. We identified concrete and local practices and interventions—which we call mundane and everyday politics – that are embedded in a territory and go beyond the typical practices of social movements and the expected infrapolitical activity in allowing the disfranchised to engage in the political process.
Willi, A., Fernandez, P. D., De Holan, P. M., 2016. Entrepreneurship of misery: Entrepreneurial activity in extreme poverty. Academy of Management Proceedings, Vol. 2016, No. 1 : Meeting Abstract Supplement 13853.
In this inductive, exploratory paper we study how emotions impact vulnerable persons' agency, and how restoring emotional balance acts as an effective antecedent of successful institutional work and/or entrepreneurship. We focus primarily on how noxious emotions stemming from misery and/or exclusion can diminish in a very significant way entrepreneurial agency, making success much more difficult and preventing the kind of institutional work needed to contest institutions. Through the in-depth case of a social entrepreneur coming from a shantytown who managed to break through institutional constraints and create a successful business enterprise with a social mission, we show how emotions can contribute to the construction of a self that projects the reproduction of the social order rather than change, and how effective intervention can break the cycle of poverty and hopelessness that is dominant among excluded people. We find that this emergent process is both stochastic and fragile, contingent to the random presence of a web of actors who supported the entrepreneur, contributing not only standard capital (social, cultural, economic) but also -and perhaps most importantly, with emotional engagement that allowed restoring the emotional balance of the person, thus enabling entrepreneurial agency.
Marti Lanuza, I., Fernandez, P., 2015. Entrepreneurship, togetherness, and emotions: A look at (post-crisis?). Journal of Management Inquiry, October 2015, Vol. 24, Nr. 4 : 424-428.
Studying entrepreneurship in the context of recession and (post)crisis opens up a set of important questions regarding the relationship between entrepreneuring, social relations, and social change. In drawing upon insights from a 2-year ethnographic study of the Spanish’s Plataforma de Afectados por la Hipoteca (Mortgage Victims Platform), known as the PAH, this article centers on the mobilization of rather unlikely citizens to a process in which most of them never thought they would be part of. We suggest that a renewed engagement with such insights regarding the emergence of new forms of organizing, the development of (new?) forms of relationality and being together, and the role of different forms of emotions in hindering/favoring agency, offers important avenues to enrich entrepreneurship research.
Casarin, A., 2014. Productivity throughout regulatory cycles in gas utilities. Journal of Regulatory Economics, Vol. 45, Issue 2: pp. 115-137 .
This paper examines productivity patterns in price cap regulated utilities around price reviews. We specify a variable cost function that we estimate using alternative specifications of technical change. Results show that the pattern of pure technical change differs within and between regulatory cycles. They also provide evidence that exogenous investment reduces the ratchet-problem, that strategic cost cutting behavior is reduced when regulatory cycles are short and that, absent these two features, industry productivity is consistent with strategic cost cutting behavior. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014
Casarin, A. , 2014. Regulated price reforms and unregulated substitutes: The case of residential piped gas in Argentina. Journal of Regulatory Economics, Volume 45, Issue 1: pp. 34–56.
This paper examines the impact of regulated piped gas price changes on connection decisions and households’ welfare. The analysis explicitly considers bottled gas as a substitute for piped gas and therefore uses a simple utility maximization model that yields both a gas-type choice model and a demand specification whose parameterization allows examining households’ responses to regulated price changes. The results show that relative gas prices and household features explain households’ piped gas usage. They also provide insights on the distribution of welfare changes. The findings illustrate the impact of tariff rebalancing and unregulated substitutes on further access to regulated network services.
Diaz Hermelo, F.; Etiennot, H.; Vassolo, R., 2014. Sources of performance heterogeneity in emerging economies. Management Research: The Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, Vol. 12 Issue 2: pp. 176-202.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore location effects on firm performance in emerging economies simultaneously accounting for permanent and transitory country, industry, country-industry and firm-specific effects.
Design/methodology/approach: The authors utilize a novel methodological approach: an autoregressive, cross-classified, mixed-effect linear regression model that allows them to simultaneously estimate a permanent (long-run) component, a transitory (short-run) component and the speed of decay of the transitory (autoregressive) component.
Findings: The authors find that the firm-specific effect is most important in explaining permanent and transitory differences. The country–industry interaction is the second most important effect, confirming that industries are not completely global and are still subject to country conditions. Broader views of the country–business context and industry conditions taken independently would be incomplete unless the country–industry interactions are considered. In other words, country matters because industry matters and vice versa. Country effects are also significant, but only transitory emphasizing the dynamic nature of emerging economies and the shortcomings that may result from considering the country business context static. Finally, the authors find that the chances of achieving sustainability of abnormal returns in emerging economies are dynamic and have significantly increased recently.
Originality/value: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first to simultaneously estimate country, industry, country–industry and firm effects on the permanent and transitory components of abnormal returns in a sample of emerging economies. The study generates important evidence regarding the sources of sustainable differentiation for firms competing in emerging economies. Finally, the authors find that chances of achieving sustainability of abnormal returns in emerging economies are dynamic and have significantly increased recently.
Etiennot, H.; Vassolo, R.; Diaz Hermelo, F.; Mc Gahan, A., 2013. How much does industry matter to firm performance in emerging countries?. Academy of Management Proceedings, Vol. 2013, Issue 1: .
In this article, we contribute to understanding of country, industry and firm effects on performance by examining heterogeneity in the profitability of corporations from both emerging and developed economies. Using a linear regression method that accounts for cross classifications, mixed effects, and auto correlation, we analyze 137,858 observations on the return on assets of 25,149 firms in 42 sectors of 65 countries during the period from 2000 to 2007. The results indicate that the components of performance in emerging markets differ significantly from developed economies in systematic ways: (1) country effects dominate industry effects on performance; (2) emerging-market corporations face significantly greater volatility in returns, with the temporary components of profitability more significant than the permanent components; and (3) idiosyncratic, firm-specific effects dominate all other effects on performance for emerging-market companies. We interpret these differences to suggest their specific implications for business and public policy.
Marti Lanuza,I., Fernandez, P.D., 2013. The institutional work of oppression and resistance: Learning from the Holocaust. Organization Studies, Vol. 34, Issue 8: pp. 1195-1223.
In recent years there has been an outburst of studies aiming to advance our understanding of how actors do work to create, maintain and disrupt institutions. Drawing on work on the Holocaust, a largely neglected event in organization theory, we explore types of institutional work through which actors first maintain domination and grant acquiescence to oppression and, second, target oppressive systems through acts of resistance. This approach offers an opportunity to study a familiar set of processes and phenomena on fresh terms and to focus on key elements that existing studies on institutional work have neglected.
Diaz Hermelo, F., Etiennot, H., Vassolo, R., 2012. Sources of Performance Heterogeneity in Emerging Economies. Academy of Management Proceedings, Vol. 2012, Nr. 1: .
Using a novel methodology to study the dynamic behavior of firms’ performance in emerging economies, we find that the firm-specific effect is the most important in explaining permanent and transitory differences. The country-industry interaction is the second most important effect, confirming that industries are not completely global. Finally, evidence exists of significant increases in performance persistence over time.
Diaz Hermelo, F.; Vassolo, R., 2012. How much does country matter in emerging economies? Evidence from Latin America. International Journal of Emerging Markets, Vol. 7 Issue 3: pp. 263-288.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the magnitude of country, industry and firm-specific effects for firms competing in emerging economies and also explore differences between high and low performers.
Design/methodology/approach – The authors use ANOVA methodologies on samples from firms competing in Latin America between 1990-2006.
Findings – It was found that the firm-specific effect is the most important one, and relatively equivalent in magnitude to the firm-specific effects found in developed countries. Country and industry effects are less important than the firm-specific effect. Contrary to previous studies that indicate that the country effect is relatively more important in emerging economies, the authors found that it is even less important than the industry effect, a result that has important implications for strategic management and international business theory. The source behind the strong firm-specific effects might stem from their resources and capabilities to manage and take advantage of the institutional and macroeconomic environments. Further analysis indicates that the firm-specific effect is relatively more important for firms showing high performance than for those firms showing low performance.
Research limitations/implications – Through these findings the authors feel that further research is needed so as to arm future managers with a more clear and comprehensive strategy when doing business in a Latin American country. The paper's findings are specific for large public corporations in Latin America.
Practical implications – The paper allows managers to think about sources of competitive advantages in emerging economies.
Originality/value – The paper shows that, despite weak institutional contexts and highly volatile macroeconomic environments, managers in the region should be able to obtain substantial differences in economic performances within the region. Activities needed for such differentiation might differ from those carried out in developed countries, with more emphasis on managing institutional voids and periods of economic and political cycles but the result should be the same.
Casarin, A., 2011. El mercado del talento en America Latina. Una estimación sobre las reservas de talento en las ciudades más grandes de nuestra región.. Harvard Business Review America Latina, : .
"Wanako Games, un desarrollador de videojuegos chileno, creó Assault Heroes, nombrado el “Juego del año” por Microsoft Xbox Live, en 2006. En 2009, Infosys, un líder mundial en el sector de TI, abrió un centro de desarrollo en Belo Horizonte, el tercero que tiene en la región. Además de las empresas de TI, varias multinacionales farmacéuticas, conglomerados financieros y corporaciones de biotecnología también han abierto nuevas operaciones de servicio en la región, esperando beneficiarse del potencial de talento latinoamericano.
¿Casualidad? Para nada. La creciente importancia del conocimiento en la creación de valor, junto con la mayor interconexión global, explican que algunas actividades basadas en el conocimiento hayan empezado a crecer en el entorno ofrecido por ciertos puntos de nuestra región. ¿Cuán preparada está América Latina para ofrecer el talento que requieren esas actividades? En este artículo, el autor cuantifica la oferta de talento en las 35 ciudades más grandes de la región, cubriendo varios trabajos realizables a distancia –contabilidad y finanzas, ciencias exactas y naturales, ingeniería y TI– y después relaciona la composición por habilidades de las ciudades latinoamericanas con los niveles de salarios. Obtiene así un retrato cuantitativo de la oferta de talento en la región.
Al lograr esto, mide el atractivo de América Latina para alojar trabajos de servicio de alto valor agregado, lo que debería ayudar a las multinacionales a tomar mejores decisiones de localización y a los gobiernos locales a desarrollar políticas que atraigan inversiones y eleven el valor de sus comunidades."
Casarin, A., Delfino, M.E., 2011. Price Freezes, Durables, and Residential Electricity Demand. Evidence from Greater Buenos Aires. Energy Economics, : .
Diaz Hermelo, F., Vassolo, R. , 2010. Institutional development and hypercompetition in emerging economies. Strategic Management Journal, : .
"This study applies previous analysis on hypercompetition to emerging economies.We propose that development of the institutional context will contribute to generate conditions of hypercompetition in emerging economies. Empirical evidence from Latin America indicates that (1) persistent superior economic performance is possible; (2) the hazard rate for exiting the superior economic performance stratum has increased over time; (3) the development of the institutional context accelerates the rate of exiting the superior economic performance stratum; and (4) domestic firms find it more difficult to remain in the superior economic performance stratum than subsidiaries of multinational corporations and multicountry firms. These findings are consistent with the onset of an age of temporary advantage in emerging economies."
Rocha, H., & McDermott, G. , 2010. Clusters and upgrading: A purposeful approach. Organizations and markets in emerging economies, : .
"We develop a theoretical model to investigate how backward societies can improve their upgrading capabilities by transforming existing industrial agglomerations into dynamic clusters. Our main assumptions are two: first, emerging market economies are not uniform but characterized by variety of subnational regional and sectoral organizational and institutional configurations; second, the basic building block and unit of explanation in social sciences is personal action guided by some intention, which is heterogeneous across different actors. Based on these assumptions and the literature on human motives and social networks, we develop a purposeful approach to clusters and upgrading. We argue that governments can develop institutions with private actors that facilitate new types of relationships and improve the access local firms have to a variety of knowledge resources, a key ingre¬dient to upgrading. We illustrate this argument revisiting the literature on clusters and upgrading in Latin America and using two case studies in Argentina, a country better known for its volatility and lack of optimal social capital and institutions. We conclude with avenues for further research."
Llach, J., Adrogue, C., Gigaglia, M.E. , 2009. Do longer school days have enduring educational, occupational or income effects? A natural experiment on the effects of lengthening primary school days in the city of Buenos Aires.. Economía, Journal of the Latin American and Caribbean Economic Association, : .
"In 1971 longer school days were decreed for around half of the primary schools in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The policy covered all the city neighborhoods, and the schools were chosen roughly at random. An unusual opportunity for a natural experiment was thus created. In 2006 and 2007, we interviewed a sample of 380 alumni of the 1971 cohort, thirty years after their 1977 graduation from schools with and without longer days. We tried to identify how the length of their school days affected their education, occupation, and income. The next section provides a fuller description of the aforementioned policy. The subsequent section, devoted to a review of the literature, is longer than usual. We thought it was important to review and to compare both the older literature on the relationship between the length of school schedules
and academic results and the newer literature devoted to renewing the educational
production function approach using random or natural experiments. Cross-references between different literatures are rare, but from our point of view, they can promote a better understanding of the issues dealt with here. The third section presents the methodology and the characteristics of the database, and the fourth section shows the main results of the experiment. We then conclude with a discussion of the results and some of their policy implications."
Miles, R.E., Miles, G., Snow, C., Blomqvist, K., Rocha, H. , 2009. The I-Form Organization. California Management Review, : .
"Every generation of managers experiments with new organizational forms—new business models and the organizational structures and management processes required to support them. Much of the current experimentation with business and organizational models is occurring in knowledge-intensive industries such as biotechnology, computers, telecommunications, and medical and scientific equipment. The principal business model emerging in these and similar industries can be called market exploration. Market exploration is a firm’s pursuit of opportunities created by intersecting technologies and markets. The market exploration process is complex, involving technology development, product development, and commercialization in collaboration with customers and other firms, as well as involving the orderly development of markets that have large but unknown potential. Firms that want to be effective at market exploration must organize specifically for innovation—they must be able to build and manage an I-form organization. This article shows how many firms are moving towards and improving the I-form organization and discusses its purpose, key features, and benefits."
Rocha, H., Miles, R.E. , 2009. A model of collaborative entrepreneurship for a more humanistic management. Journal of Business Ethics, : .
"Inter-organizational models are both a well-documented phenomena and a well-established domain in management and business ethics, which rest on collaborative capabilities. However, mainstream theories and practices aimed at developing these capabilities are based on a narrow set of assumptions and ethical principles about human nature and relationships, which constrain the very development of capabilities sought by them. This paper presents an Aristotelian approach to collaborative entrepreneurship within and across communities of firms operating in complementary markets. Adopting a scholarship of integration approach and the evaluation of six studies of communities of organizations, we contribute an inter-organizational network model based on the assumptions about human motives and choice offered by Aristotle. We argue that the sustainability of inter-organizational communities depends on how rich is the set of assumptions about human nature upon which they are based. In order to develop and sustain collaborative capabilities in inter-organizational communities, a set of assumptions that takes both self-regarding and other’ regarding preferences as ends is required in order to avoid any kind of instrumentalization of collaboration, which is an end in itself. Implications for theory and practice are discussed."
Melé, D., Paladino, M. , 2008. Corporate services in poor areas. A case study with participative multi-stakeholder involvement. Business and Society Review, : .
"Corporations which provide services such as water, sewage disposal and electricity in poor countries or deprived areas, face political, social and economic problems which make it difficult to simultaneously favor the interests of shareholders and other relevant stakeholders. In this paper a case study is presented in which a company, Aguas Argentinas, promoted innovative and participative multi-stakeholder involvement which produced benefits for all parties. Key factors in the model employed were the generation of credibility and trust, adaptive management to the specific situation of deprived areas, stakeholder dialogue and participation. It is argued that understanding corporate citizenship as reciprocity and common effort in solving interdependent problems were fundamental to the success of the company in this case."
Rocha, H. , 2008. Sumantra Ghoshal y su contribución para que las teorías y la práctica del management sean una fuerza para el bien. . Revista Empresa y Humanismo , : .
"Este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar una síntesis elaborada sobre las premisas que hacían de Sumantra Ghoshal una fuerza para el bien, tanto a través de sus más recientes desarrollos intelectuales como a través de su influencia en la práctica de la dirección. Para ello describe las definicones y hace explícitas las premisas e ideas en proceso en el momento del fallecimiento de Ghoshtal, en marzo del 2004. Plantea posibles desafíos a encarar en investigaciones futuras para seguir desarrollando el potencial de las teorías y la práctica de la dirección de modo que sean una fuerza para el bien."
Casarin, A., Delfino, M.E. & Delfino, A., 2007. Failures in water reform. Lessons from the Buenos Aires’s concession . Utilities Policy, : .
Casarin, A. , 2006. Efficient industry configurations in downstream gas markets. An empirical assessment. Energy Economics, : .
Rocha, H., Ghoshal, S., 2006. Beyond self-interest revisited. Journal of Management Studies, : .
"We revisit the self-interest view on human behavior and its critique, and propose a framework, called self-love view, that integrates self-interest and unselfishness and provides different explanations of the relationship between preferences, behavior, and outcomes. Proponents of self-interest as the only valid behavioral assumption argue for simplified assumptions and clear models in order to propose precise prescriptions, while critics to this self-interest view argue for realistic assumptions and rich descriptions in order to reach better explanations. This debate inhibits theoretical development because it faces the problem of incommensurability of standards for choosing among paradigms. We propose the concept of self-love, or the inclination of human beings to strive for their own good and perfection, to remove the assumption self-interest vs. unselfishness. Self-love distinguishes between the object and the subject of motivation and therefore creates a bi-dimensional motivational space. This framework replaces the uni- dimensional continuum self-interest - unselfishness, specifies eight interrelated motives, and provides different expected relationships between preferences, behavior, and outcomes. We show that a better understanding of motivational assumptions, their embodiment in theories, and their influence on the very behaviors these theories assume provides managers and policymakers more alternatives for the designing of motivational contexts than in the case of assuming either self-interest or a permanent conflict between self-interest and unselfishness."
Nahapiet, J. , Gratton, L. & Rocha, H., 2005. Knowledge and relationships: When cooperation is the norm. European Management Review, : .
"We believe that structural changes in a knowledge economy mean that managers will increasingly seek to make cooperative relationships the norm in their organizations. However, they are hampered in their attempts to do so by organization designs that institutionalize the dominant assumption about human intentionality, which sees people and their relationships as motivated by self-interest. We argue that the self-interest assumption runs counter to the types of cooperation required to leverage fully the potential of the knowledge-based firm since it provides for relatively restricted forms of social exchange. We propose that the assumption of excellence, as set out by Aristotle in Nicomachean Ethics, provides a valuable alternative. We discuss four tenets of this assumption and find that they suggest important differences in organisation design that are more likely to encourage and institutionalize cooperative relationships. We explore these differences, considering their implications for practice and research."
Rocha, H. , Sternberg, R., 2005. Entrepreneurship: The role of clusters. Theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence from Germany. Small Business Economics, : .
"This paper is about the impact of clusters on entrepreneurship at the regional level. Defining entrepreneurship as the creation of new organizations and clusters as a geographically proximate group of interconnected firms and associated institutions in related industries, this paper aims to answer three research questions: first, do clusters matter to entrepreneurship at the regional level? Second, if clusters are associated with different levels of entrepreneurship, what explains those differences? Third, what do the answers to the previous questions imply for academics and policy makers? To answer these questions, this paper distinguishes between clusters and industrial agglomerations and advances a theoretical model and empirical research to explain the impact of clusters on entrepreneurship at the regional level. This paper uses the 97 German planning regions as units of analysis to test the hypotheses. Using hypotheses testing and OLS fixed-effects model, this paper finds that clusters do have an impact on entrepreneurship at the regional level, but industrial agglomerations do not. Implications for academics and policy makers and suggestions for future research are given in the concluding section."
Rocha, H., 2004. Entrepreneurship and Development: The Role of Clusters. A Literature Review. Small Business Economics, : .
Paladino, M. , Willi, A., 2003. Directivos de empresa, ¿Líderes de la sociedad?. The Journal of Corporate Citizenship, : .
Paladino, M., Bates, H., da Silveira, G., 2002. Using a customer-focused approach to improve quality across the value chain: the case of Siderar. Total Quality Management, : .
This study describes the process of value chain quality improvement carried out by a leading steel company in Latin America. The longitudinal study explains how the company developed quality improvement initiatives based on cooperation with customers and suppliers. The importance of the case is due mainly to the original approach taken by the company, on turning its business around through quality improvement initiatives in the external value chain, especially towards direct customers. Data were collected during nine years, from the 1992 privatisation until early 2001. Data included interviews with managers, observations, and documents. The case provides empirical support for ideas underlying quality initiatives across the value chain, customer response strategies, and the use of knowledge as a source of competitive advantage.