A. Massoud, Jacob, Willi, Alberto, 2019. A qualitative study of Argentine small and medium enterprises: Factors driving social responsibility. Business Strategy & Development, 2019: .
Small and medium‐sized enterprise (SMEs) social responsibility has recently begun to gain greater importance in Argentina due to a variety of contextual factors. The main area of inquiry investigated in this study was the motivation for adopting social responsibility initiatives at Argentine SMEs. Exploratory, qualitative methods were employed to evaluate social responsibility initiatives at six firms across several industries. Semistructured interviews served as the primary source of data. Data were analyzed and interpreted using open coding to develop categories and themes. Results indicate that the chief motivation for SMEs to engage in social responsibility rests primarily in the values of company owners or managers. Additional external factors such as labor demands and the economy also influence a firm's choice of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiative. The findings also provide the broader business community with several lessons that could be applied to enhance CSR efforts. Similar to prior research, it was found that both internal and external factors influence the adoption of CSR by SMEs, demonstrating strong support for the roles of an owner's values and the community as key drivers.
Marti Lanuza, I.; Courpasson, D., 2019. Collective ethics of resistance: The organization of survival in the Warsaw Ghetto. Organization, First Published January 17, 2019: .
This article aims to shed light on how ‘powerless’ people can organize to survive in situations of mass oppression. Research on powerlessness often explains compliance and political inaction by a culture of silence, generated from the sedimentation of numerous experiences of defeat. We question this assertion by drawing from an illustration of certain inhabitants of the Warsaw Ghetto, who managed to create a micro-society and reclaim the social relations the Nazis sought to destroy. Building on the work of Schaffer, we explain these collective ethics of resistance as the view that people should actively participate in the creation and maintenance of their own social relations. Through this lens, we argue that ethics and resistance are intertwined.
Willi, A.; Massoud, Jacob A.; Daily, Bonnie F. , 2019. How Do Argentine SMEs Define CSR? Cases in Educational Social Development. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, First online: March 2019: .
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the social responsibility approaches of six small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Argentina and their definitions of corporate social responsibility (CSR).
This is an exploratory, qualitative study and part of a broader study. A sample of six Argentine SMEs from manufacturing, services and construction sectors was used to evaluate specific CSR initiatives in the areas of social development. A total of 23 interviews were conducted, and open coding was used to analyze and develop categories and themes from the data patterns.
Results provide a set of definitional dimensions for CSR from an Argentine perspective, and indicate that SMEs in Argentina frequently engage in education and training oriented initiatives as a primary emphasis for their CSR efforts. Commitment, community and employee orientations, the natural environment, and education/training represent key elements of their conceptualizations of CSR.
This research extends the literature related to CSR definitions. It also highlights elements of a growing trend around educational social development initiatives in developing countries. Additionally, it is one of only a few studies to focus on Argentina.
Crespo, R., 2018. Liberal Naturalism and Non-Epistemic Values. Foundations of Science, First Online: 26 July 2018: pp. 1-27 .
The ‘value-free ideal’ has been called into question for several reasons. It does not include “epistemic values”—viewed as characteristic of ‘good science’—and rejects the so-called ‘contextual’, ‘non-cognitive’ or ‘non-epistemic’ values—all of them personal, moral, or political values. This paper analyzes a possible complementary argument about the dubitable validity of the value-free ideal, specifically focusing on social sciences, with a two-fold strategy. First, it will consider that values are natural facts in a broad or ‘liberal naturalist’ sense and, thus, a legitimate part of those sciences. Second, the paper will not reject the value-free ideal; rather, it will construe this ideal in a special way, not casting values aside in sciences, but bringing them to the table and rationally discussing them. Today’s predominant naturalistic view has tended to ‘naturalize’ values by looking for physicalist explanations for them—a move resisted by defenders of normativism in social sciences. At the same time, a contending ‘liberal naturalist’ stream has emerged, claiming that not all natural entities can be explained by the methods and concepts of physical sciences, and favors a non-materialist naturalism which includes mind, consciousness, meaning and value as fundamental parts of nature that cannot be reduced to matter. Hence, it may be posited that non-epistemic values could be ‘naturally’ included in the field of human sciences.
Crespo, R.; Debeljuh, P.; Rodríguez, O.; Mesurado, B.; Idrovo Carlier, S., 2018. The Development and Initial Validation of the Multidimensional Flourishing Scale. Current Psychology, First Online: 17 August 2018: pp. 1-10.
The objective of this paper is to develop a Multidimensional Flourishing Scale and to study its psychometric validation. The paper includes three different studies. Study 1 analyzes the development of the item for each dimension, the initial factor structure (using parallel analysis and exploratory factor analysis), and the internal consistency. In Study 2, the confirmatory factor analysis was used to confirm the scale structure, and also the convergent validity was analyszed. Finally, in Study 3, the construct validity and stability of the Multidimensional Flourishing Scale across six countries (Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Portugal and Spain) are studied. The analyses presented herein show that the scale is psychometrically valid, and that has a strong internal consistency reliability coefficient for the entire scale and for each subscale in the different studies presented and the six countries included in the third study.
Jamali, D.; Makarem, Y.; Willi, A., 2018. From diffusion to translation: implementation of CSR practices in MNC subsidiaries. Social Responsibility Journal, Forthcoming: .
Anchored in institutional theory and sense-making theory, the purpose of this paper is to explore the implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) at the multinational corporations (MNC) subsidiary level in a developing country context.
This paper follows a qualitative methodology and adopts the interview technique to investigate the CSR practices of eight MNCs.
The results suggest that the CSR diffusion process goes well beyond simple imitation (i.e. adopting CSR myths or best practices intact), involving complex processes of interpretation and translation at the subsidiary level to reconcile the multiple and contradictory expectations for CSR.
The paper illustrates the dynamics of the sense-making process at the level of the subsidiary and the numerous institutional factors that are accounted for while implementing CSR activities in the host community. This paper argues that the integration of the two theories helps bridge macro and micro levels of analysis, thus providing a much richer account of how organizational actors at the subsidiary level make “sense” of a multitude of institutional pressures in the process of CSR implementation stemming from within the MNC itself on one hand (and the respective home country) and from the host community on the other hand.
Marti Lanuza, I., 2018. Transformational Business Models, Grand Challenges, and Social Impact. Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 152, Issue 4: pp. 965-976 .
The starting premise of this paper is that business models can transform social reality—sometimes to an extreme. Then, building on the concept of “grand challenges,” we argue that such transformations can be either positive or negative in nature (or both)—even in the case of business models designed to improve value not only economically but environmentally and socially as well. To further our understanding of the negative aspects, we introduced two conceptual categories of business model: those for oppression or depletion and exclusionary ones. We further argue that bringing the notion of grand challenges center-stage highlights four elements that can contribute to emerging research and inform practice on transformational business models. These elements are: participatory forms of architecture; multivocal inscriptions; scaffolding; and proximity (understood as a caring concern for the “other”). They are central components of what we name transformational business models.
Carballo, I. E.; Belloni, C. M.; López Amorós, M.; Fracchia, E. , 2017. Emprendedorismo y políticas públicas. Una introducción a la literatura. Revista Perspectivas de Políticas Públicas , Vol. 7, Nº 13: pp. 37-88.
En este trabajo nos proponemos abordar la temática del emprendedorismo y su relación con las políticas públicas. Para ello, realizamos una revisión introductoria de la literatura partiendo de los principales conceptos que defienden el emprendedorismo y las distintas concepciones del emprendedor. Concluimos el trabajo afirmando que los canales que determinan la actividad emprendedora y su relación causal con el desarrollo económico son extensos, generando arduos debates en torno a la efectividad y prácticas adecuadas de las políticas públicas. Es necesario impulsar políticas que comprometan de manera sostenible esfuerzos de los sectores públicos y privados para mantener vigorosos los procesos de emprendedorismo.
Crespo, R., Tohmé, F., 2017. The future of Mathematics in Economics: A philosophically grounded proposal. Foundations of Science, Volume 22, Issue 4: pp. 677-693.
The use of mathematics in economics has been widely discussed. The philosophical discussion on what mathematics is remains unsettled on why it can be applied to the study of the real world. We propose to get back to some philosophical conceptions that lead to a language-like role for the mathematical analysis of economic phenomena and present some problems of interest that can be better examined in this light. Category theory provides the appropriate tools for these analytical approach.
De Holan, P. M.; Willi, A.; Fernandez, P. , 2017. Breaking the Wall: Emotions and Projective Agency Under Extreme Poverty. Business & Society, First online: December 5, 2017: .
In this inductive, exploratory study, we explore how emotions affect the agency of vulnerable persons and their engagement in social innovation to challenge oppressive institutional constraints. By presenting the in-depth case of a successful entrepreneur from a shantytown, we show how emotions affect the construction of a self that contributes to the reproduction of social order rather than change, and how effective interventions can break the cycle of poverty and hopelessness that is dominant among excluded people. We find that this process is fragile and contingent on the presence of known strangers—that is, a web of actors that contributes not only resources but also emotional engagement that helps the emergence and development of low-power actors’ projectivity. We identify mechanisms for and provide a model of the development and emergence of the projective self that is necessary to engage in future-oriented agency.
Etiennot, H.; Diaz Hermelo, F.; McGahan, A., 2017. How do industry and country impact firm performance? A national and supranational analysis. Review of Managerial Science, First Online: 27 November 2017: pp. 1-31.
We contribute to the literature of the country, industry and firm effects on performance by developing an autoregressive cross-classified mixed-effect linear model that examines heterogeneity in the profitability of corporations in emerging and developed economies, as well as corporations located in different supranational regions. To this purpose, we simultaneously decompose abnormal returns into permanent and transitory components at the firm, industry, country and industry–country levels. We find that firms in emerging countries have significantly higher rates of performance persistence and different sources of persistence compared to firms located in developed countries. These differences are also evident between different supranational regions and countries at different levels of institutional development.
Fernandez, P.D., Farchi, T., Marti Lanuza,I., 2017. Mundane and everyday politics for and from the neighborhood. Organization Studies, Vol. 38, Issue: 2: 201-223.
Social movement scholars and activists have recognized the difficulties of mobilizing people for the long haul, moving from the exuberance of the protest to the dull and ordinary work necessary to produce sustainable change. Drawing on ethnographic work in La Juanita, in Greater Buenos Aires, we look at local actions for and from the neighborhood in order to resist political domination, taken by people who have been unemployed for long periods of time. We identified concrete and local practices and interventions—which we call mundane and everyday politics – that are embedded in a territory and go beyond the typical practices of social movements and the expected infrapolitical activity in allowing the disfranchised to engage in the political process.
Rodríguez, O.; Mesurado, B.; Crespo, R., 2017. Calling. Making the world a better place from within multinational corporations. Current Psychology, First Online: 08 August 2017: pp. 1-8.
Nobody seems to doubt that working toward a calling is much more rewarding than just working for financial rewards or promotions. Nevertheless, although it is acknowledged that people can experience callings in any activity, up to now, there are few studies on this construct in the context of commercial companies. In this paper we focus on studying calling orientation in employees of a multinational company. We test three hypotheses: 1) the different ways of relating to work (as a job, a career or a calling) is also reported among corporate employees; 2) there are differences in the levels of flow at work in accordance with the different ways that employees relate to their work; and 3) there are differences in the levels of perception that employees have of the social relevance of their work in accordance with the way in which they relate to their work. In order to verify these hypotheses we applied three instruments to a sample of employees of the Latin America brand (279 Argentinean and 193 Ecuadorian employees) of a multinational corporation: The University of Pennsylvania Work Life Questionnaire, the Work Related Flow Inventory and a scale of Social Work Relevance Perception. The results suggest that callings are identifiable among corporate enterprise employees and that employees with a calling orientation have higher levels of flow at work and a greater perception of the social relevance of their work than those employees who just relate to their work as jobs or careers.
Schiaffino, P.; Crespo, R.; Heymann, D., 2017. Processing uncertainty: evolving beliefs, fallible theories, rationalizations and the origins of macroeconomic crises. Journal of Applied Economics, Vol. 20, Issue 2 : pp. 305-328.
The macroeconomic crisis of the last decade reopened questions about how economic agents define plans and expectations. The crisis triggered widespread, yet ongoing revisions of the beliefs entertained by agents and economists. The decision errors that result in crises do not necessarily derive from behavioral biases: often, those choices were rationalized with reference to established conventional wisdom, backed by economic theories influential at the respective times. Thus, understanding such socially relevant events requires addressing concretely how people build decision scenarios in changing environments, and how those interact with the evolution of prevalent economic analysis. A revision of Keynes' work on uncertainty, especially his notion of “weight of evidence”, can help in this respect. In this paper we analyze some central informational elements of macro crises, discuss weaknesses of the standard analyses which try to accommodate critical phenomena into the rational expectations framework, and comment on ways to move ahead.
Carballo, I. E.; Fracchia, E. , 2016. “Instituciones y Economía” Una hoja de ruta posible para su comprensión. Filosofía de la Economía, Vol. 5: pp. 87-124.
En este trabajo nos proponemos abordar la temática institucional y la relevancia que la misma posee para la disciplina económica. A fin de dar cuenta de su amplitud y generalidad, realizamos un recorrido histórico por la evolución de los principales conceptos que la circundan y que la relacionan con disciplinas como la historia, la sociología o el derecho. Luego, tras remarcar la relación existente entre instituciones, crecimiento y desarrollo económico brindada por parte de la literatura, señalamos las principales limitaciones que la misma ha tenido para consolidarse en el campo empírico. A través del camino recorrido en este trabajo, concluimos que las principales asignaturas pendientes por parte del pensamiento institucional son: a) brindar evidencia empírica y robusta al respecto de la relación de causalidad entre instituciones, crecimiento y desarrollo; y b) desarrollar una herramienta metodológica apropiada que permita identificar, modificar y/o crear aquellas instituciones que llevan al crecimiento y al desarrollo equitativo de la sociedad.
Crespo, R., 2016. Aristotle on Agency, Habits and Institutions. Journal of Institutional Economics, Vol. 12, Issue 4: pp. 867-884.
This paper introduces Aristotle's conception of agency, habits and institutions as a way of contributing to some current discussions about the definition, nature and theory of institutions. Aristotle developed a theory of human action, where we can find a place for ‘agency’. His views on habits are linked to his theory of virtue and art (skill). Concerning institutions, Aristotle provides a sound social and political philosophy that encompasses the nature and role of institutions. The paper will subsequently present Aristotle's ideas on these three notions – agency, habits and institutions – and will finally establish which of the current accounts of institutions involved in the discussion sparked by Hindriks and Guala's recent paper (2005a) he would support. Given that some realities tackled in the paper are nowadays radically different from Aristotle's times, the paper tries to keep an ‘Aristotelian-minded’ point of view – that is, analysing current topics based on Aristotelian concepts.
Crespo, R., 2016. The common good and economics. Cuadernos de Economia, Vol. 39. Núm. 109. Enero - Abril 2016: 23-33.
This paper analyzes the meaning of the ‘common good’ and its impact on economics. It adopts the ‘classical notion of the common good’ which, conceived by Aristotle and further developed by Thomas Aquinas, has been widely used for centuries. Sections , introduce Aristotle's view on this notion, followed by Aquinas’ developments. Section 4 addresses the different meanings of common good in the 20th century. Given that the classical version of the common good implies an anthropological position and a theory of the good, Section 5 extracts them from Aristotle's works, while Section 6 deduces policy implications from the previous definitions. Finally, Section 7 analyzes two current economic theories from the point of view of their relation with the common good: economics of happiness and the capability approach. The final section presents a brief conclusion.
Este documento analiza el significado del “bien común” y su impacto en la Economía. Adopta la “noción clásica del bien común” que, concebida por Aristóteles y desarrollada posteriormente por Tomás de Aquino, ha sido ampliamente utilizada durante siglos. La segunda y tercera secciones introducen la visión aristotélica sobre esta noción, seguida de los desarrollos de Aquino. La cuarta sección aborda los diferentes significados del bien común, pertenecientes al siglo XX. Dado que la versión clásica del bien común implica una posición antropológica y una teoría del bien, la quinta sección extrae ambos conceptos de la obra de Aristóteles, mientras que la sección sexta deduce las implicaciones políticas de las definiciones anteriores. Por último, la séptima sección analiza dos teorías económicas actuales, desde el punto de vista de su relación con el bien común: la economía de la felicidad y el enfoque de las capacidades. La sección final incluye una breve conclusión.
Common good. Happiness economics. Capability approach.
Bien común. Economía de la felicidad. Enfoque de las capacidades.
Crespo, R., 2016. The common good and economics. Pensamiento, Forthcoming: .
This paper analyzes the meaning of the ‘common good’ and its impact on economics. It adopts the ‘classical notion of the common good’ which, conceived by Aristotle and further developed by Thomas Aquinas, has been widely used for centuries. Sections 2 The Aristotelian roots of the concept of common good, 3 Aquinas’ developments introduce Aristotle's view on this notion, followed by Aquinas’ developments. Section 4 addresses the different meanings of common good in the 20th century. Given that the classical version of the common good implies an anthropological position and a theory of the good, Section 5 extracts them from Aristotle's works, while Section 6 deduces policy implications from the previous definitions. Finally, Section 7 analyzes two current economic theories from the point of view of their relation with the common good: economics of happiness and the capability approach. The final section presents a brief conclusion.
Willi, A., Fernandez, P. D., De Holan, P. M., 2016. Entrepreneurship of misery: Entrepreneurial activity in extreme poverty. Academy of Management Proceedings, Vol. 2016, No. 1 : Meeting Abstract Supplement 13853.
In this inductive, exploratory paper we study how emotions impact vulnerable persons' agency, and how restoring emotional balance acts as an effective antecedent of successful institutional work and/or entrepreneurship. We focus primarily on how noxious emotions stemming from misery and/or exclusion can diminish in a very significant way entrepreneurial agency, making success much more difficult and preventing the kind of institutional work needed to contest institutions. Through the in-depth case of a social entrepreneur coming from a shantytown who managed to break through institutional constraints and create a successful business enterprise with a social mission, we show how emotions can contribute to the construction of a self that projects the reproduction of the social order rather than change, and how effective intervention can break the cycle of poverty and hopelessness that is dominant among excluded people. We find that this emergent process is both stochastic and fragile, contingent to the random presence of a web of actors who supported the entrepreneur, contributing not only standard capital (social, cultural, economic) but also -and perhaps most importantly, with emotional engagement that allowed restoring the emotional balance of the person, thus enabling entrepreneurial agency.
Crespo, R.; Mesurado, B., 2015. Happiness Economics, Eudaimonia and Positive Psychology: From Happiness Economics to Flourishing Economics. Journal of Happiness Studies, Vol. 16, Issue 4: pp. 931–946.
A remarkable current development, happiness economics focuses on the relevance of people’s happiness in economic analyses. As this theory has been criticised for relying on an incomplete notion of happiness, this paper intends to support it with richer philosophical and psychological foundations. Specifically, it suggests that happiness economics should be based on Aristotle’s philosophical eudaimonia concept and on a modified version of ‘positive psychology’ that stresses human beings’ relational nature. First, this analysis describes happiness economics and its shortcomings. Next, it introduces Aristotle’s eudaimonia and takes a look at positive psychology with this lens, elaborating on the need to develop a new approach that goes beyond the economics of happiness: the economics of flourishing. Finally, the paper specifies some possible socio-economic objectives of a eudaimonic economics of happiness.
Marti Lanuza, I., Fernandez, P., 2015. Entrepreneurship, togetherness, and emotions: A look at (post-crisis?). Journal of Management Inquiry, October 2015, Vol. 24, Nr. 4 : 424-428.
Studying entrepreneurship in the context of recession and (post)crisis opens up a set of important questions regarding the relationship between entrepreneuring, social relations, and social change. In drawing upon insights from a 2-year ethnographic study of the Spanish’s Plataforma de Afectados por la Hipoteca (Mortgage Victims Platform), known as the PAH, this article centers on the mobilization of rather unlikely citizens to a process in which most of them never thought they would be part of. We suggest that a renewed engagement with such insights regarding the emergence of new forms of organizing, the development of (new?) forms of relationality and being together, and the role of different forms of emotions in hindering/favoring agency, offers important avenues to enrich entrepreneurship research.
Casarin, A., 2014. Productivity throughout regulatory cycles in gas utilities. Journal of Regulatory Economics, Vol. 45, Issue 2: pp. 115-137 .
This paper examines productivity patterns in price cap regulated utilities around price reviews. We specify a variable cost function that we estimate using alternative specifications of technical change. Results show that the pattern of pure technical change differs within and between regulatory cycles. They also provide evidence that exogenous investment reduces the ratchet-problem, that strategic cost cutting behavior is reduced when regulatory cycles are short and that, absent these two features, industry productivity is consistent with strategic cost cutting behavior. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014
Casarin, A. , 2014. Regulated price reforms and unregulated substitutes: The case of residential piped gas in Argentina. Journal of Regulatory Economics, Volume 45, Issue 1: pp. 34–56.
This paper examines the impact of regulated piped gas price changes on connection decisions and households’ welfare. The analysis explicitly considers bottled gas as a substitute for piped gas and therefore uses a simple utility maximization model that yields both a gas-type choice model and a demand specification whose parameterization allows examining households’ responses to regulated price changes. The results show that relative gas prices and household features explain households’ piped gas usage. They also provide insights on the distribution of welfare changes. The findings illustrate the impact of tariff rebalancing and unregulated substitutes on further access to regulated network services.
Diaz Hermelo, F.; Etiennot, H.; Vassolo, R., 2014. Sources of performance heterogeneity in emerging economies. Management Research: The Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, Vol. 12 Issue 2: pp. 176-202.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore location effects on firm performance in emerging economies simultaneously accounting for permanent and transitory country, industry, country-industry and firm-specific effects.
Design/methodology/approach: The authors utilize a novel methodological approach: an autoregressive, cross-classified, mixed-effect linear regression model that allows them to simultaneously estimate a permanent (long-run) component, a transitory (short-run) component and the speed of decay of the transitory (autoregressive) component.
Findings: The authors find that the firm-specific effect is most important in explaining permanent and transitory differences. The country–industry interaction is the second most important effect, confirming that industries are not completely global and are still subject to country conditions. Broader views of the country–business context and industry conditions taken independently would be incomplete unless the country–industry interactions are considered. In other words, country matters because industry matters and vice versa. Country effects are also significant, but only transitory emphasizing the dynamic nature of emerging economies and the shortcomings that may result from considering the country business context static. Finally, the authors find that the chances of achieving sustainability of abnormal returns in emerging economies are dynamic and have significantly increased recently.
Originality/value: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first to simultaneously estimate country, industry, country–industry and firm effects on the permanent and transitory components of abnormal returns in a sample of emerging economies. The study generates important evidence regarding the sources of sustainable differentiation for firms competing in emerging economies. Finally, the authors find that chances of achieving sustainability of abnormal returns in emerging economies are dynamic and have significantly increased recently.
Bertelloni, F.,Crespo, R. , 2013. Nota sobre la naturaleza ‘política’ de ‘lo económico’ para Aristóteles. Philosophia , N°73 : pp. 103-110.
Esta nota intenta la solución del conflicto entre el carácter supuestamente pre-moral de la oikonomikê aristotélica por pertenecer a la oikia, y el carácter claramente moral que surge de la lectura de los textos aristotélicos pertinentes. Se recurre al análisis del discurso aristotélico acerca del origen, naturaleza y fin de la polis. La prioridad ontológica de la polis opera una vinculación entre el «vivir» y el «bien vivir» que es aplicable a la oikonomikê.
Crespo, R., 2013. Review of Andrew M. Yuengert’s Approximating prudence: Aristotelian practical wisdom and economic models of choice. Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics, Vol. 6, Issue 1: pp. 127-133.
Crespo, R. , 2013. The increasing role of practical reason in the Human Development Reports. Review of Social Economy, Vol. 71, Issue 1: pp. 93-107.
This paper will argue for the need to reinsert practical reason into economics. It will first define, classify, and characterize practical reason. Second, it will show how it applies to Economics (Section 3). Then, it will note the presence of this use of reason in the construction of the United Nations Development Program's (UNDP) Human Development Index (Section 4). Finally, the paper will maintain that the UNDP is increasingly making use of this form of reason (Section 5).
Crespo, R., 2013. Two conceptions of economics and maximization. Cambridge Journal of Economics, Vol. 37, Issue 4: pp. 759–774.
"Economics has evolved from a ‘domain-focused’ conception, i.e. the study of specific kinds of human activities, to a ‘scarcity-based’ conception, i.e. the study of a particular approach to all human choices. It thus enlarged its domain and narrowed its perspective: instrumental maximising. This paper maintains that economics should be domain focused, with a core of scarcity-based analysis of its domain, integrated into a broader analysis. It also holds that the scarcity-based analysis of realities falling outside the economic domain is not economics, but rather a social science broader in respect to the field but narrower in respect to the analysis, and thus partial in its conclusions. Section 2 introduces these versions of economics, Section 3 links them to specific conceptions of rationality, Section 4 provides arguments for the paper’s thesis and Section 5 deals with two related versions of maximisation and argues for adopting one of them.
Definition of economics; Definition of maximisation ;Relation with other social sciences"
Crespo, R., Tohmé, F., 2013. Abduction in economics: A conceptual framework and its model. Synthese, Vol. 190, Issue 18: pp. 4215–4237 .
We discuss in this paper the scope of abduction in Economics. The literature on this type of inference shows that it can be interpreted in different ways, according to the role and nature of its outcome. We present a formal model that allows to capture these various meanings in different economic contexts.
Crespo, R.; Martínez Cinca, C. D., 2013. El revisionismo austríaco y la concepción aristotélica del valor. Sesgos y claves para una nueva revisión. Revista Anales del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía, Vol. 30, N°1 : pp. 11-26.
El revisionismo austríaco discutió la tesis de la historiografía económica clásica en torno a una supuesta incomprensión escolástica del mercado fundada en el “justo precio” y en la concepción aristotélica del valor, y vio en dicha concepción la raíz de la teoría subjetiva del valor sostenida por la primera generación de austríacos. Aquí mostramos, sin embargo, que los principales revisionistas austríacos realizaron una interpretación sesgada de la distinción entre valor de uso y valor de cambio en Aristóteles, e indicamos las claves esenciales en torno a las cuales debería girar la recuperación de la auténtica dimensión del valor económico en Aristóteles.
Etiennot, H.; Vassolo, R.; Diaz Hermelo, F.; Mc Gahan, A., 2013. How much does industry matter to firm performance in emerging countries?. Academy of Management Proceedings, Vol. 2013, Issue 1: .
In this article, we contribute to understanding of country, industry and firm effects on performance by examining heterogeneity in the profitability of corporations from both emerging and developed economies. Using a linear regression method that accounts for cross classifications, mixed effects, and auto correlation, we analyze 137,858 observations on the return on assets of 25,149 firms in 42 sectors of 65 countries during the period from 2000 to 2007. The results indicate that the components of performance in emerging markets differ significantly from developed economies in systematic ways: (1) country effects dominate industry effects on performance; (2) emerging-market corporations face significantly greater volatility in returns, with the temporary components of profitability more significant than the permanent components; and (3) idiosyncratic, firm-specific effects dominate all other effects on performance for emerging-market companies. We interpret these differences to suggest their specific implications for business and public policy.
Heymann, D., Crespo, R.,Schiaffino, P., 2013. Living in complex economies: On inconsistent expectations and economic crises. Filosofía de la economía:Publicación del Centro de investigación en Epistemología de las Ciencias Económicas.FCE-UBA., Vol. 1, No. 1 : pp. 71-86.
Economic crises are associated with large shocks to beliefs and expectations. They put in question the means by which agents and analysts try to understand and forecast the features and the performance of the economy. Thus, the study of crises involves dealing with the practical strategies that economic actors use to interpret and to anticipate the evolution of their environment, and with the fallibility of those procedures. In this setting, we start with a brief review of traditional arguments on the possibilities and limitations of probabilistic approaches in economic contexts. We then discuss some accounts of the recent macroeconomic crisis in central economies, focusing on the problems which arise in predicting the dynamics of non- ergodic systems, characterized by ever- changing patterns of behaviour and where observed regularities may or may not persist. We then concentrate on a salient behavioural aspect of the processes leading to crises, given by the various ways in which agents rationalize an economic path that will eventually be perceived as an unsustainable bubble. We conclude by stressing the relevance of paying attention to the concrete practices of actors in forming representations of the economy and determining expectations.
Marti Lanuza,I., Fernandez, P.D., 2013. The institutional work of oppression and resistance: Learning from the Holocaust. Organization Studies, Vol. 34, Issue 8: pp. 1195-1223.
In recent years there has been an outburst of studies aiming to advance our understanding of how actors do work to create, maintain and disrupt institutions. Drawing on work on the Holocaust, a largely neglected event in organization theory, we explore types of institutional work through which actors first maintain domination and grant acquiescence to oppression and, second, target oppressive systems through acts of resistance. This approach offers an opportunity to study a familiar set of processes and phenomena on fresh terms and to focus on key elements that existing studies on institutional work have neglected.
Crespo, R. F., 2012. Ética y Política en John Maynard Keynes. Deus Mortalis, N°10, 2011-2012: .
Crespo, R. F., 2012. Models as signs as good economic models. Revista de Estudios Económicos, Volumen 29, Noviembre 2012: pp. 1 - 1.
This paper applies John Poinsot's doctrine about signs to the evaluation of good economic models. First, a good model is defined. Then, Poinsot's conceptual framework and some current ideas about models are introduced. Third, the paper shows how Poinsot's and ideas about models can be combined. The conclusion is that a good model raises possible causes of the phenomena under examination, which should be then empirically verified
Crespo, R. F., 2012. The capabilities approaches and aristotelian practical reason. Revista de Instituciones, Ideas y Mercados, Nº 57, Octubre 2012: pp. 57-86.
This paper deals with the problem of how to make decisions about
capabilities, as conceived by Amartya Sen. Given their incommensurable character, how to determine the particular set of capabilities to be sought in particular situations? In the last instance I posit that we need a qualitative appraisal, thus introducing the concept of “practical comparability”, which is built on Aristotelian philosophical grounds.
Diaz Hermelo, F., Etiennot, H., Vassolo, R., 2012. Sources of Performance Heterogeneity in Emerging Economies. Academy of Management Proceedings, Vol. 2012, Nr. 1: .
Using a novel methodology to study the dynamic behavior of firms’ performance in emerging economies, we find that the firm-specific effect is the most important in explaining permanent and transitory differences. The country-industry interaction is the second most important effect, confirming that industries are not completely global. Finally, evidence exists of significant increases in performance persistence over time.
Diaz Hermelo, F.; Vassolo, R., 2012. How much does country matter in emerging economies? Evidence from Latin America. International Journal of Emerging Markets, Vol. 7 Issue 3: pp. 263-288.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the magnitude of country, industry and firm-specific effects for firms competing in emerging economies and also explore differences between high and low performers.
Design/methodology/approach – The authors use ANOVA methodologies on samples from firms competing in Latin America between 1990-2006.
Findings – It was found that the firm-specific effect is the most important one, and relatively equivalent in magnitude to the firm-specific effects found in developed countries. Country and industry effects are less important than the firm-specific effect. Contrary to previous studies that indicate that the country effect is relatively more important in emerging economies, the authors found that it is even less important than the industry effect, a result that has important implications for strategic management and international business theory. The source behind the strong firm-specific effects might stem from their resources and capabilities to manage and take advantage of the institutional and macroeconomic environments. Further analysis indicates that the firm-specific effect is relatively more important for firms showing high performance than for those firms showing low performance.
Research limitations/implications – Through these findings the authors feel that further research is needed so as to arm future managers with a more clear and comprehensive strategy when doing business in a Latin American country. The paper's findings are specific for large public corporations in Latin America.
Practical implications – The paper allows managers to think about sources of competitive advantages in emerging economies.
Originality/value – The paper shows that, despite weak institutional contexts and highly volatile macroeconomic environments, managers in the region should be able to obtain substantial differences in economic performances within the region. Activities needed for such differentiation might differ from those carried out in developed countries, with more emphasis on managing institutional voids and periods of economic and political cycles but the result should be the same.
Alonso, C., Fracchia, E., 2011. El emprendedor shumpeteriano: Aportes a la teoría económica moderna. Revista de Administración, Finanzas y Economía (Journal of Management, Finance and Economics), : .
Casarin, A., 2011. El mercado del talento en America Latina. Una estimación sobre las reservas de talento en las ciudades más grandes de nuestra región.. Harvard Business Review America Latina, : .
"Wanako Games, un desarrollador de videojuegos chileno, creó Assault Heroes, nombrado el “Juego del año” por Microsoft Xbox Live, en 2006. En 2009, Infosys, un líder mundial en el sector de TI, abrió un centro de desarrollo en Belo Horizonte, el tercero que tiene en la región. Además de las empresas de TI, varias multinacionales farmacéuticas, conglomerados financieros y corporaciones de biotecnología también han abierto nuevas operaciones de servicio en la región, esperando beneficiarse del potencial de talento latinoamericano.
¿Casualidad? Para nada. La creciente importancia del conocimiento en la creación de valor, junto con la mayor interconexión global, explican que algunas actividades basadas en el conocimiento hayan empezado a crecer en el entorno ofrecido por ciertos puntos de nuestra región. ¿Cuán preparada está América Latina para ofrecer el talento que requieren esas actividades? En este artículo, el autor cuantifica la oferta de talento en las 35 ciudades más grandes de la región, cubriendo varios trabajos realizables a distancia –contabilidad y finanzas, ciencias exactas y naturales, ingeniería y TI– y después relaciona la composición por habilidades de las ciudades latinoamericanas con los niveles de salarios. Obtiene así un retrato cuantitativo de la oferta de talento en la región.
Al lograr esto, mide el atractivo de América Latina para alojar trabajos de servicio de alto valor agregado, lo que debería ayudar a las multinacionales a tomar mejores decisiones de localización y a los gobiernos locales a desarrollar políticas que atraigan inversiones y eleven el valor de sus comunidades."
Casarin, A., Delfino, M.E., 2011. Price Freezes, Durables, and Residential Electricity Demand. Evidence from Greater Buenos Aires. Energy Economics, : .
Crespo, R. , 2011. Enseñanzas aristotélicas para la economía contemporánea. Revista Empresa y Humanismo, : .
"Este artículo resume algunas enseñanzas aristotélicas para la economía contemporánea.Comienza aclarando qe para extraer esas contribuciones se utilizará el término oikonomiké en un sentido amplio.Considera cuatro significados de oikonomiké: como una acción humana (del uso de lo necesario para la vida y para la vida buena); como una capacidad; como un hábito y como un ciencia práctica. En cuanto a las enseñanzas éticas, se neumeran las vitudes que ayudan a las acciones económicas y evitan la práctica de la ""censurada crematística"". A continuación el artículo subraya el crácter político de oikonomiké y la relevancia de las instituciones para la economía. Aborda la cuestión de la inconmensurabilidad y sugiere la necesidad de utilizar la ""comparabilidad práctica"" para decidir sobre los fines sociales. Por último, analiza las consecuencias de que la economía sea una ciencia práctica."
Crespo, R., 2011. Los problemas de crecimiento de la economia moderna. Revista de Ciencias Sociales_Segunda Época, : .
"La economía es una ciencia bien joven. Si comparamos su nacimiento ""oficial"", la publicación de la ""Riqueza de las naciones"" de Adam Smith en 1776, con los de ciencias de orígenes remotos y arcanos como la matemática, la filosofía o la física, llegaremos a la conclusión de que a lo sumo está viviendo su adolescencia.
Este no es un trabajo ni de medicina ni de psicología. Pero la analogía me sirve para hacer una descripción y clasificación de los problemas de crecimiento de la economía. Esto implica suponer que la economía ha crecido o está aún creciendo. El hecho es obvio, pero requeriría una prueba. Sin embargo , no me voy a detener en ello. Al mejor estilo de los economistas, lo voy a considerar como un supuesto."
Crespo, R. , 2011. Two conceptions of economics. Journal of Applied Economics, : .
Crespo, R., Van Steveren, I., 2011. Would we have had this crisis if women had been running the financial sector?. Journal of Sustainable Finance and Investment, : .
Martinez Echeverría y Ortega, M.A., Crespo, R. , 2011. Aristóteles y el pensamiento económico: una introducción. Revista Empresa y Humanismo, : .
Ricardo Crespo , 2011. "Las tensiones de la idea de la justicia de Amartya Sen". Revista Cultura Económica Año XXIX, Nº 81-82, Diciembre 2011: 27-30, : 5.
Resumen: En este artículo, se ensaya un análisis crítico del libro de Amartya Sen La idea de la justicia. En primer lugar, se analizan los contrastes entre pragmatismo y objetividad en la idea de justicia propuesta por Sen. Luego se desarrolla el concepto de ‘capacidad’ propuesto por este economista, y se presentan las objeciones de Martha Nussbaum a este planteo. A continuación, el artículo señala los vínculos entre la idea de justicia y las concepciones económicas de Amartya Sen y analiza el debate acerca del esquema de maximización protagonizado por este pensador y Elizabeth Anderson. Finalmente, se realiza una valoración de la obra como totalidad, destacando la importancia de la razón práctica en el análisis de la justicia.
Abstract: This paper presents a critical study of Amartya Sen’s book, The Idea of Justice. First, the contrasts between pragmatism and objectivity in the idea of justice proposed by Sen are analyzed. Then, the concept of ‘capability’ proposed by this economist is developed, and Martha Nussbaum’s objections to this approach are presented. Further, the article explores the links between the idea of justice and Amartya Sen’s economic conceptions, and analyzes the discussion about the maximizing diagram carried out by this thinker and Elizabeth Anderson. Finally, an assessment of the work as a whole is made, highlighting the importance of practical reason in the analysis of justice.
Adrogue, C., Crespo, R., 2010. Cuestiones implícitas al medir en economía: El índice de desarrollo humano (IDH) como un estudio de campo. Revista Cultura Económica, : .
"In the present study, the authors analyze the HDI of the United Nations Human Development Program.They intend to show that there are underlying technical and practical assumptions. Not all of them, however, are sufficiently explained or argued. First, Adrogué and Crespo discuss why they consider it as a relevant case of study. Then, the history and the description of the HDI are provided. Thirdly, the difficulties of the index numbers and specifically of the HDI, are explained. Next, the underlying practical asumptions are shown. Finally the authors present their main conclusions and some suggestions about how they believe the index can be improved."
Crespo, R. , 2010. Aristotle on the Economy. Philosophia, : .
From seemingly outdated passages of Aristotle on oikonomike, this paper tries to select and separate what is old-fashioned from what is valid for today. From these latter elements-which may be abridged ni the intrinsic ethical and political character of economics- we can extract useful lessons. These lessons refer to the impact of Ethics and Politics on Economics. They stress the reflevance of personal virtues and institutions for a suitable functioning of the economy. From an epistemological point of view, these lessons highlight the inexact character of Economics and the necessity of firm reliance on data. Current economics does not deal with ends, but only with means.The Aristotelian perspective would specially deal with ends. This concern with ends leads to prudential, not technical analysis and decisions. This calls for broadening the scope of Economics and consequently should provoke changes in its instruction. The paper concludes that a closer attention to Aristotle's thought would have a high impact on current economy and Economics.
Crespo, R. , 2010. De la economía subordinada a la política a la política subordinada a la economía. Desarrollo Económico Revista de Ciencias Sociales, : .
Crespo, R., 2010. La legitimidad de la medición en ciencias sociales.. Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Universidad de Cuyo, : .
Crespo, R., 2010. Sen y Aristoteles. Razón práctica y economía.. Cuadernos Empresa y Humanismo, : .
"Una tesis central de este texto es que los fines de la acción y razón práctica están retornando a la Economía a través del “enfoque caqpacidades” (capability approach, CA) para el análisis de la pobreza, la igualdad y el desarrollo, propuesto por Amartya Sen. Al centrarse en las capacidades, Sen reinserta la noción de fin en la economía y la economía en el área práctica: las capacidades son ellas mismas fines.
En este documento, en primer lugar, introduciré los conceptos clave del CA de Sen. En segundo lugar evaluaré sus puntos fuertes y sus debilidades. Después analizaré la raíz aristotélica del enfoque. Cuarto, me ocuparé de los problemas y las críticas al CA de Sen. Consideraré cinco cuestiones: en primer lugar la carencia de una lista concreta de capacidades;segundo, la heterogeneidad de las capacidades; tercero, si el CA puede llevarse a práctica; cuarto, las relaciones entre los diferentes tipos de capacidades en el espacio de las capacidades; y cinco, el concepto de libertad de Sen, posiblemente infra-elaborado y sobre-extendido. Voy a explicar las respuestas de Sen y en qué forma el CA podría introducir cambios para dar respuesta a estas críticas adoptando una perspectiva más profunda, inspirada en Aristóteles."
Diaz Hermelo, F., Vassolo, R. , 2010. Institutional development and hypercompetition in emerging economies. Strategic Management Journal, : .
"This study applies previous analysis on hypercompetition to emerging economies.We propose that development of the institutional context will contribute to generate conditions of hypercompetition in emerging economies. Empirical evidence from Latin America indicates that (1) persistent superior economic performance is possible; (2) the hazard rate for exiting the superior economic performance stratum has increased over time; (3) the development of the institutional context accelerates the rate of exiting the superior economic performance stratum; and (4) domestic firms find it more difficult to remain in the superior economic performance stratum than subsidiaries of multinational corporations and multicountry firms. These findings are consistent with the onset of an age of temporary advantage in emerging economies."
Ricardo Crespo , 2010. Legitimidad y alcance de la medición en ciencias sociales: relfexiones filosóficas. Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Economicas, UN Cuyo, Año: 2010, Año LIX, No. 128, p. 63-78, : 16.
En este trabajo, luego de analizar la naturaleza de la matemática, del número
y de la medición, tratamos de determinar la legitimidad y alcance de varios
tipos de mediciones propios de las ciencias sociales, especialmente de la
economía. El carácter ordinal de algunas variables económicas imprime
limitaciones a la medición y a las operaciones que pueden realizarse con
éstas. Analizamos el modo de superar estas limitaciones.
This paper first analyzes the nature of mathematics, numbers and
measurement. It follows with the determination of the legitimacy and scope of
measurement in social sciences, especially Economics. The ordinal character
of some economic variables imposes constraints on their measurement and on
Rocha, H., & McDermott, G. , 2010. Clusters and upgrading: A purposeful approach. Organizations and markets in emerging economies, : .
"We develop a theoretical model to investigate how backward societies can improve their upgrading capabilities by transforming existing industrial agglomerations into dynamic clusters. Our main assumptions are two: first, emerging market economies are not uniform but characterized by variety of subnational regional and sectoral organizational and institutional configurations; second, the basic building block and unit of explanation in social sciences is personal action guided by some intention, which is heterogeneous across different actors. Based on these assumptions and the literature on human motives and social networks, we develop a purposeful approach to clusters and upgrading. We argue that governments can develop institutions with private actors that facilitate new types of relationships and improve the access local firms have to a variety of knowledge resources, a key ingre¬dient to upgrading. We illustrate this argument revisiting the literature on clusters and upgrading in Latin America and using two case studies in Argentina, a country better known for its volatility and lack of optimal social capital and institutions. We conclude with avenues for further research."
Brodschi, E., Fracchia, E., López Amorós, M., 2009. La corrupción en la Argentina: Un diagnóstico de la situación actual. Ensayos de Política Económica, : .
"Este trabajo pretende brindar un marco para el análisis del fenómeno de la corrupción en Argentina. Para ello, nos concentramos en el estudio de la situación actual desde una perspectiva cuantitativa y cualitativa, analizando los datos de corrupción recopilados por agencias especializadas, pero también analizando el desempeño de las instituciones en la lucha contra la corrupción.
A continuación, analizamos la experiencia internacional en materia de política anti corrupción, para concluir el trabajo con algunas lecciones de política para la Argentina derivadas de la evidencia aportada."
Crespo, R., 2009. Notes on Keynes and Brentano. Energeia-International Journal of Philosophy and Methodology of Economics, : .
"This paper will explore a possible relationship between John Maynard Keynes and Franz Brentano on logical and epistemological grounds. Brentano (1839-1917) was a German philosopher. George E. Moore – Keynes’s professor – and Keynes himself read and praised Brentano’s book The Origin of Our Knowledge of Right and Wrong (1889). Has Keynes adopted any logical or epistemological ideas from Brentano? The paper suggests that although some apparent similarities between Keynes and Brentano’s ideas on logic ad truth, there are also fundamental dissimilarities."
Crespo, R., 2009. La pirámide invertida” de capacidades. Revista de Economía Política de Buenos Aires, : .
Crespo, R. , 2009. Thinking about the financial and economic crisis: Some brief notes on its causes and remedies. Think, : .
"An economic crisis is an unexpected phenomenon with strong consequences for nations, institutions and people's wealth, habits, and behaviors. It departs from the ‘normal’ evolution of the affairs foreseen by economic theory. It makes the claim for new theoretical explanations. It surprises the economic agents (individuals, firms and governments) that try to ascertain what kind of phenomenon they are facing in order to decide the appropriate actions to undertake. It calls for revisions of theory, plans and expectations. Overall, a crisis calls for an explanation which clarifies its causes."
Crespo, R., 2009. Una reflexión sobre la razón teórica y la razón práctica en la economía. Revista Empresa y Humanismo, : .
"Dadas las limitaciones de la noción estándar de racionalidad económica, estamos viviendo una explosión de nuevos adjetivos de la “racionalidad” en economía. El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer la aplicación a la economía de dos formas clásicas de racionalidad, la racionalidad teórica y práctica. El trabajo presenta brevemente estas nociones, las causas de su decadencia y su actual “resurrección” y argumenta a favor de su reinserción en la economía. Sólo se pretende efectuar una introducción informal a futuros desarrollos de esta línea de investigación."
Crespo, R. F., 2009. La responsabilidad social empresaria (RSE) a la luz de Caritas in veritate. Revista Cultura Económica, Año XXVII, Nº 75 / 76, Agosto - Diciembre 2009: pp. 121 - 127.
Crespo, R. F., 2009. Las causas de las crisis económicas: un análisis filosófico. Revista Cultura Económica, Septiembre 2009: .
Crespo, R. F., 2009. Sobre las causas de la crisis. Revista Cultura Económica, Año XXVI / XXVII, Número 73 / 74: .
Crespo, R. F., 2009. Three arguments against Menger's suggested aristotelianism. Berkeley Electronic Press, Vol. 13, Nr. 1: .
Crespo, R. F., 2009. Turning Sen’s capability approach operative thanks to Aristotle’s ideas. Sapientia, Vol. LXV: .
Llach, J., Adrogue, C., Gigaglia, M.E. , 2009. Do longer school days have enduring educational, occupational or income effects? A natural experiment on the effects of lengthening primary school days in the city of Buenos Aires.. Economía, Journal of the Latin American and Caribbean Economic Association, : .
"In 1971 longer school days were decreed for around half of the primary schools in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The policy covered all the city neighborhoods, and the schools were chosen roughly at random. An unusual opportunity for a natural experiment was thus created. In 2006 and 2007, we interviewed a sample of 380 alumni of the 1971 cohort, thirty years after their 1977 graduation from schools with and without longer days. We tried to identify how the length of their school days affected their education, occupation, and income. The next section provides a fuller description of the aforementioned policy. The subsequent section, devoted to a review of the literature, is longer than usual. We thought it was important to review and to compare both the older literature on the relationship between the length of school schedules
and academic results and the newer literature devoted to renewing the educational
production function approach using random or natural experiments. Cross-references between different literatures are rare, but from our point of view, they can promote a better understanding of the issues dealt with here. The third section presents the methodology and the characteristics of the database, and the fourth section shows the main results of the experiment. We then conclude with a discussion of the results and some of their policy implications."
Miles, R.E., Miles, G., Snow, C., Blomqvist, K., Rocha, H. , 2009. The I-Form Organization. California Management Review, : .
"Every generation of managers experiments with new organizational forms—new business models and the organizational structures and management processes required to support them. Much of the current experimentation with business and organizational models is occurring in knowledge-intensive industries such as biotechnology, computers, telecommunications, and medical and scientific equipment. The principal business model emerging in these and similar industries can be called market exploration. Market exploration is a firm’s pursuit of opportunities created by intersecting technologies and markets. The market exploration process is complex, involving technology development, product development, and commercialization in collaboration with customers and other firms, as well as involving the orderly development of markets that have large but unknown potential. Firms that want to be effective at market exploration must organize specifically for innovation—they must be able to build and manage an I-form organization. This article shows how many firms are moving towards and improving the I-form organization and discusses its purpose, key features, and benefits."
Ricardo Crespo , 2009. Nancy Cartwright, millian and/or aristotelian. Sapientia Vol. LXV, Fasc. 225-226, 2009, : 28.
Descripción: Abstract: Nancy Cartwright understands scientific explanation in terms of stable causes which she calls “capacities” or “natures”. She has been criticized for her interpretation of Mill’s tendencies, for her stress on individual causes, for the contrast between her empiricism and her metaphysical approach, and for her “local realism”. This paper will analyze those criticisms and will argue that a greater reliance on Aristotle might help to answer them and consolidate her proposals. Note that Cartwright is more skeptical about the possibilities of causal explanation in the social realm than about its possibilities in natural science. The paper thus also examines Aristotelian social capacities and provides some Aristotelian arguments for Cartwright’s skepticism about our knowledge of them and our using them to arrive at social scientific explanations.
Rocha, H., Miles, R.E. , 2009. A model of collaborative entrepreneurship for a more humanistic management. Journal of Business Ethics, : .
"Inter-organizational models are both a well-documented phenomena and a well-established domain in management and business ethics, which rest on collaborative capabilities. However, mainstream theories and practices aimed at developing these capabilities are based on a narrow set of assumptions and ethical principles about human nature and relationships, which constrain the very development of capabilities sought by them. This paper presents an Aristotelian approach to collaborative entrepreneurship within and across communities of firms operating in complementary markets. Adopting a scholarship of integration approach and the evaluation of six studies of communities of organizations, we contribute an inter-organizational network model based on the assumptions about human motives and choice offered by Aristotle. We argue that the sustainability of inter-organizational communities depends on how rich is the set of assumptions about human nature upon which they are based. In order to develop and sustain collaborative capabilities in inter-organizational communities, a set of assumptions that takes both self-regarding and other’ regarding preferences as ends is required in order to avoid any kind of instrumentalization of collaboration, which is an end in itself. Implications for theory and practice are discussed."
Crespo, R., 2008. Keynes’ Realisms . European Journal of the History of Economic Thought, : .
Some authors pointed to a realist orientation in Keynes’s thought. However, since “realism” is a wide, diffuse and sometimes equivocal term, one may ask, what kind of realism Keynes’s realism is. This paper argues that Keynes held to an ontological, logical-semantic and epistemic realism. Whereas ontological realism has metaphysical connections, logical-semantic realism involves a notion of truth and epistemological realism presupposes a theory of knowledge. The character of the subject-matter of knowledge circumscribes the scope of this last kind of realism. Epistemological realism is related to the role of intuition and convention in Keynes’s thought, the meaning and evolution of which is explained.
Crespo, R. , 2008. Reciprocity and practical comparability . International Review of Economics and Business, : .
Reciprocity does not require exactness but only a certain equilibrium in the things reciprocated: it is often overabundant. In addition, reciprocity may be fulfilled by returning something of a different kind that may be heterogeneous and incommensurable with the thing received. The reason of this “uneven response” of reciprocity is that in these situations the exchange of means aims at manifesting some values that are ends for the persons involved. Hence, the consideration of reciprocity supposes a reinsertion of ends in economics. The paper firstly defines reciprocity. Next, it summarizes a variety of arguments for a reconsideration of ends in economics. After that, it explains the differences between the rationalities of means and ends. A key difference lies in the problem of incommensurability of ends. This problem will be then tackled and a possible way to overcome it will be proposed. It will be finally sustained that practical comparability allows for incommensurable fair reciprocation.
Crespo, R., 2008. Relevancia de la racionalidad práctica en economía. Revista Empresa y Humanismo, : .
"La economía moderna se ha impuesto la presión de ser una ciencia exacta y por este motivo ha perdido realismo. Para conseguirlo ha puesto entre paréntesis los fines de la acción humana, que habían sido tenidos en cuenta desde Aristóteles a los economistas clásicos. Sin embargo, algunos economistas actuales han advertido los problemas que esto lleva consigo y han intentado recuperar la cuestión de los fines para la economía. Ahora bien, esta recuperación requiere un tratamiento metodológico adecuado de los fines. En este ámbito las comparaciones que implican cualquier decisión conllevan una serie de limitaciones. En este trabajo se expondrán estas dificultades y el modo de solucionarlas desde la filosofía de Aristóteles y de Santo Tomás de Aquino. Finalmente se apuntarán someramente algunas posibles consecuencias para la ciencia económica contemporánea."
"Modern Economics trying to be an exact science has lost realism. For the sake of exactness, it has put into brackets the aims of human action which had been considered from Aristotle to the classical economists. Some contemporary economists, however, have realized the problems of that isolating of aims and are trying to reconsider them. This rehabilitation of ends requires an appropriate methodology because the comparison of ends implies some difficulties. In this paper these difficulties are exposed and a way to solved them, relying on Aristotle and Aquinas, is proposed. Finally, some consequences for today Economics will be sketched."
Crespo, R., 2008. The economic’ according to Aristotle: Ethical, political and epistemological implications. Foundations of Science, : .
"A renewed concern with Aristotle’s thought about the economic aspects of human life and society can be observed. Aristotle dealt with the economic issues in his practical philosophy. He thus considered ‘the economic’ within an ethical and political frame. This vision is coherent with a specific ontology of ‘the economic’ according to Aristotle. In a recent paper, I analysed this ontology and left its consequences, especially for Ethics and Politics, for another paper. In this article, I firstly summarise the reasoning and conclusions of the aforementioned paper. Then, I extract the ethical and political “lessons” of the Aristotelian conception. I finally add a section with epistemological “lessons”, and consequences for the teaching of Economics."
Melé, D., Paladino, M. , 2008. Corporate services in poor areas. A case study with participative multi-stakeholder involvement. Business and Society Review, : .
"Corporations which provide services such as water, sewage disposal and electricity in poor countries or deprived areas, face political, social and economic problems which make it difficult to simultaneously favor the interests of shareholders and other relevant stakeholders. In this paper a case study is presented in which a company, Aguas Argentinas, promoted innovative and participative multi-stakeholder involvement which produced benefits for all parties. Key factors in the model employed were the generation of credibility and trust, adaptive management to the specific situation of deprived areas, stakeholder dialogue and participation. It is argued that understanding corporate citizenship as reciprocity and common effort in solving interdependent problems were fundamental to the success of the company in this case."
Rocha, H. , 2008. Sumantra Ghoshal y su contribución para que las teorías y la práctica del management sean una fuerza para el bien. . Revista Empresa y Humanismo , : .
"Este artículo tiene como objetivo presentar una síntesis elaborada sobre las premisas que hacían de Sumantra Ghoshal una fuerza para el bien, tanto a través de sus más recientes desarrollos intelectuales como a través de su influencia en la práctica de la dirección. Para ello describe las definicones y hace explícitas las premisas e ideas en proceso en el momento del fallecimiento de Ghoshtal, en marzo del 2004. Plantea posibles desafíos a encarar en investigaciones futuras para seguir desarrollando el potencial de las teorías y la práctica de la dirección de modo que sean una fuerza para el bien."
Casarin, A., Delfino, M.E. & Delfino, A., 2007. Failures in water reform. Lessons from the Buenos Aires’s concession . Utilities Policy, : .
Crespo, R. , 2007. Practical comparability and ends in economics . Journal of Economic Methodology, : .
This paper endeavours to summarise a variety of arguments for a reconsideration of ends in Economics. The logical structure of the rationality of ends (practical rationality) differs from the one of means (instrumental rationality). The paper sets out to explain the differences between both rationalities and some of the implications of incorporating this new emphasis on ends, given that Economics adopts the means rationality. The emergence of the topics of incommensurability and incomparability of ends is presented and a possible way to tackle it is suggested. Finally, some implications for Economics are drawn. This article emphasises the importance of incorporating practical rationality into economic analysis. The arguments of the paper are built on Aristotelian grounds.
Casarin, A. , 2006. Efficient industry configurations in downstream gas markets. An empirical assessment. Energy Economics, : .
Crespo, R. , 2006. Racionalidades de la economía. Cuaderno Empresa y Humanismo, : .
"Titulo este proyecto "Las racionalidades de la economía"", usando el número plural del sustantivo racionalidad, por dos motivos. El primero, porque argumentaré a favor de un doble tipo de racionalidad aplicable a la economía:la instrumental y la práctica.El segundo motivo es porque hoy día se postulan varias propuestas en torno a la racionalidad en economía que procuran ir más allá de las diversas versiones de la racionalidad tradicionales. En general estas nuevas propuestas tienden a buscar una ampliación el concepto de racionalidad. A esto parecen abocarse también diversos programas. La aspiración de estos proyectos es encontrar un concepto que supere la forma de racionlidad denominada instrumental. No siempre lo logran.
Este trabajo consta de dos partes: en la primera expongo el marco de las racionalidades de la economía en el primer sentido: las racionalidades que rigen la realidad económica y la ciencia que las estudia. Será un camino algo largo. En la segunda, más breve, expondré sucintamente algunas de las mencionadas propuestas."
Crespo, R., 2006. The ontology of the ‘Economic’: An Aristotelian analysis. Cambridge Journal of Economics, : .
"Tony Lawson's and Uskali Mäki's respective realist projects rely on an ontology of the economy. This paper will not focus on these research projects but will instead try to shed light on them by introducing an ontology of the economy according to Aristotle. Oikonomiké, the seminal term used by him, is not a noun but an adjective. For Aristotle, nouns express entities or beings, both self-sufficient beings and accidental properties. Adjectives almost always express accidents. What kind of being is ‘the economic’? This analysis will suggest some conclusions about the constraints of economic science and the need for institutions according to the peculiar ontological condition of ‘the economic’ as conceived by Aristotle."
Fracchia, E. , Mezquita, L. , 2006. Corporate strategies of business groups in the wake of competitive shocks. Management Research, : .
"Conventional economic and management theories explain that business groups facing market liberalization policy reforms (i.e., competitive shocks) would have incentives to reduce corporate portfolios and increase internationalization. We empirically examine the strategic responses of Argentine business groups and, through an inductive theory building process, propose refinements to this theory. We argue that such a strategy process is moderated not only by differences in market forces set out by policy reforms across different economic segments but also by the path dependency of resources and capabilities as well as management decision-making style of individual business groups. We discuss implications for theory and practice."
Rocha, H., Ghoshal, S., 2006. Beyond self-interest revisited. Journal of Management Studies, : .
"We revisit the self-interest view on human behavior and its critique, and propose a framework, called self-love view, that integrates self-interest and unselfishness and provides different explanations of the relationship between preferences, behavior, and outcomes. Proponents of self-interest as the only valid behavioral assumption argue for simplified assumptions and clear models in order to propose precise prescriptions, while critics to this self-interest view argue for realistic assumptions and rich descriptions in order to reach better explanations. This debate inhibits theoretical development because it faces the problem of incommensurability of standards for choosing among paradigms. We propose the concept of self-love, or the inclination of human beings to strive for their own good and perfection, to remove the assumption self-interest vs. unselfishness. Self-love distinguishes between the object and the subject of motivation and therefore creates a bi-dimensional motivational space. This framework replaces the uni- dimensional continuum self-interest - unselfishness, specifies eight interrelated motives, and provides different expected relationships between preferences, behavior, and outcomes. We show that a better understanding of motivational assumptions, their embodiment in theories, and their influence on the very behaviors these theories assume provides managers and policymakers more alternatives for the designing of motivational contexts than in the case of assuming either self-interest or a permanent conflict between self-interest and unselfishness."
Crespo, R., 2005. Keynes y sus circunstancias. Revista Empresa y Humanismo, : .
"La vida y las circunstancias de las personas inciden de algún modo en su pensamiento. En este trabajo se presenta la figura del economista inglés, seleccionando algunos rasgos de su personalidad y hechos de su vida y época, tomados especialmente de las biografías recientes. No se establecen las posibles conexiones con sus ideas, pero se presume que éstas surgirán naturalmente en los lectores que las conocen. Así se deja un amplio margen para que la ""intentio lectoris"" complete o suplante la ""intentio auctoris""."
Nahapiet, J. , Gratton, L. & Rocha, H., 2005. Knowledge and relationships: When cooperation is the norm. European Management Review, : .
"We believe that structural changes in a knowledge economy mean that managers will increasingly seek to make cooperative relationships the norm in their organizations. However, they are hampered in their attempts to do so by organization designs that institutionalize the dominant assumption about human intentionality, which sees people and their relationships as motivated by self-interest. We argue that the self-interest assumption runs counter to the types of cooperation required to leverage fully the potential of the knowledge-based firm since it provides for relatively restricted forms of social exchange. We propose that the assumption of excellence, as set out by Aristotle in Nicomachean Ethics, provides a valuable alternative. We discuss four tenets of this assumption and find that they suggest important differences in organisation design that are more likely to encourage and institutionalize cooperative relationships. We explore these differences, considering their implications for practice and research."
Rocha, H. , Sternberg, R., 2005. Entrepreneurship: The role of clusters. Theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence from Germany. Small Business Economics, : .
"This paper is about the impact of clusters on entrepreneurship at the regional level. Defining entrepreneurship as the creation of new organizations and clusters as a geographically proximate group of interconnected firms and associated institutions in related industries, this paper aims to answer three research questions: first, do clusters matter to entrepreneurship at the regional level? Second, if clusters are associated with different levels of entrepreneurship, what explains those differences? Third, what do the answers to the previous questions imply for academics and policy makers? To answer these questions, this paper distinguishes between clusters and industrial agglomerations and advances a theoretical model and empirical research to explain the impact of clusters on entrepreneurship at the regional level. This paper uses the 97 German planning regions as units of analysis to test the hypotheses. Using hypotheses testing and OLS fixed-effects model, this paper finds that clusters do have an impact on entrepreneurship at the regional level, but industrial agglomerations do not. Implications for academics and policy makers and suggestions for future research are given in the concluding section."
Crespo, R., 2004. El intelectualismo de Mises. Libertas, : .
Crespo, R., 2004. Freedom and coordination in economics: An epistemological analysis. Journal of Markets and Morality, : .
Rocha, H., 2004. Entrepreneurship and Development: The Role of Clusters. A Literature Review. Small Business Economics, : .
Crespo, R. , 2003. Libertad y coordinación en economía: Un análisis epistemológico. Revista Empresa y Humanismo, : .
Crespo, R., 2003. Three arguments against Menger’s suggested aristotelianism. Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines, : .
Paladino, M. , Willi, A., 2003. Directivos de empresa, ¿Líderes de la sociedad?. The Journal of Corporate Citizenship, : .
Crespo, R., 2002. Noción y tareas de la economía, su carácter normativo y sus conexiones con la ética. Económica, : .
Crespo, R., 2002. Reappraising Austrian economics’ basic tenet in the light of aristotelian ideas. The Review of Austrian Economics, : .
Paladino, M., Bates, H., da Silveira, G., 2002. Using a customer-focused approach to improve quality across the value chain: the case of Siderar. Total Quality Management, : .
This study describes the process of value chain quality improvement carried out by a leading steel company in Latin America. The longitudinal study explains how the company developed quality improvement initiatives based on cooperation with customers and suppliers. The importance of the case is due mainly to the original approach taken by the company, on turning its business around through quality improvement initiatives in the external value chain, especially towards direct customers. Data were collected during nine years, from the 1992 privatisation until early 2001. Data included interviews with managers, observations, and documents. The case provides empirical support for ideas underlying quality initiatives across the value chain, customer response strategies, and the use of knowledge as a source of competitive advantage.
Crespo, R. F.. Una nueva lógica para la economía. Persona y Cultura, Volumen 8, Año 2010: pp. 14 - 14.
La consideración de la economía como ciencia práctica pone las cosas en su lugar. La economía bajo este marco se ocupa de la elección de los fines acordes con una vida buena. La técnica le queda debidamente subordinada, limitada al fin del hombre. Por una parte, sólo el ejercicio de la razón teórica permite saber qué es la economía, que es la técnica y cuáles son sus competencias. Por otra parte, el ejercicio de la razón práctica permite la elección adecuada de los fines y un uso de los medios acordes con esos fines. La razón práctica, cuando alcanza la verdad práctica, marca el rumbo de la libertad que se transforma en una capacidad de ejercicio de la acción conducente al bien personal y común del hombre. Ésta es la nueva lógica necesaria para la economía.
Crespo, R. F., Mesurado, B.. Happiness Economics, Eudaimonia and Positive Psychology: From Happiness Economics to Flourishing Economics. Journal of Happiness Studies, Volume 16, Issue 4: pp 931–946.